Microsoft Azure offers many services and resource offerings. For example, you can use the Azure Virtual Machines compute services to build a network of virtual servers to host an application, database, or custom solution, which would be an IaaS based offering.
OWIN middleware to apply limits to an OWIN pipeline:
- Max bandwidth
- Max concurrent requests
- Connection timeout
- Max query string
- Max request content length
- Max url length
- Min response delay
There are a number of laws regarding hacking a computer you don’t have authorization to hack, the CFAA in the USA, the CMA in Great Britain, the CHM in Australia, and the list goes on. All of which make it illegal to do what you want to do, and in some cases have pretty strict penalties for even the smallest of actions.
The term most often used to describe what you’re talking about is Hacking Back. It’s part of the Offensive Countermeasures movement that’s gaining traction lately. Some really smart people are putting their heart and soul into figuring out how we, as an industry, should be doing this. There are lots of things you can do, but unless you’re a nation-state, or have orders and a contract from a nation-state your options are severely limited.
There’s always an “Abuse” email address on the whois of a netblock for reporting misuse of an IP address.
You can use http://whois.domaintools.com/ to do a whois lookup to get the address.
If you are using WordPress, use Wordfence! They are really good!
There are approximately 296 million .COM domains registered. That’s a lot of domain names out on the Internet that are either already taken or just parked in some obsolete spot gathering dust and all kinds of age. The most common names like loser.com. Jamesbrown.com are already taken by net investors who resell the rights to the names. Can you imagine someone having http://www.elvis.com ? He’s just waiting on the highest bidder!
There are 900 possible combinations for two letter sequences. If you’re looking for “ET” then you just won’t find it! Even allowing for digits, again every single web address is taken. Of course, that’s ignoring the fact that .COM registrars now mandate a 3-character minimum length, so it wouldn’t be an option.
By definition, every TCP/IP application is a client/server application. In this scenario the client makes requests of a server. That request flows down the TCP/IP protocol stack, across the network, and up the stack on the destination host. Whether the server exists on the same host, another host of the same LAN, or on a host located on another network, the information always flows through the protocol stack.
From the information presented to this point, the client/server model has some general characteristics:
- The server provides services and the client consumes services.
- The relationship between the client and the server is machine-independent.
- A server services many clients and regulates their access to resources.
- The client and server can exist on different hardware platforms.
- The exchange between client and server is a message-based interaction.
- The server’s methodology is not important to the client.
- The client carries the bulk of the processing workload so that the server is free to serve a large number of clients.
- The server becomes a client to another server when it needs information beyond that which it manages.
By specifying only the interface between the Application layer and the Transport layer, the TCP/IP Application layer permits various Application layer models. This open-ended approach to the Application layer makes it difficult to draw a single model that illustrates all TCP/IP applications. On one end of the scale, applications run as shell-level commands; on the other, applications run in various window environments. For example, the traditional telnet is run from the shell. Yet, some implementations of the telnet client take advantage of windows technology. To make life more complicated, telnet implementations are also available for the distributed computing environment (DCE). C++ client/server applications use the Object Management Group’s (OMG) Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) model. Consequently, trying to define a universal Application layer model is an exercise in futility.
However, even with all the variations, the Web browser continues to grow as a popular Windows environment for the implementation of the client side of the equation.
Not too long ago, programmers developed applications; now they develop applications, plug-ins, and applets. Although a program is a program, the name attached to it tells us something about the nature of the program. Alas, there are more gray zones than black and white ones. In spite of this overlap, some well-defined characteristics separate applications, plug-ins, and applets.
Starting with an application, the common characteristics are that:
- It is a standalone program.
- A desktop program, including Web browsers, invokes an application in a separate window.
- An application normally implements a specific application protocol such as FTP, telnet, or SMTP.
On the other hand, a plug-in’s characteristics are that:
- It represents an extension to a Web browser.
- It implements a specific MIME type in an HTML document.
- It normally operates within the browser window.
And then we have the Java applet. Is it a “small application,” or is it something else? A Java applet
- Is written in the Java language and compiled by a Java compiler
- Can be included in an HTML document
- Is downloaded and executed when the HTML document is viewed
- Requires the Java runtime to execute
Whereas applications and plug-ins must be ported to each hardware platform, applets run on any platform that has a Java runtime. Thus, applets provide an object-oriented, multiplatform environment for the development of applications.
Internetworking routes IP datagrams according to the IP address, but humans find names easier to remember. This section briefly reviews the principles of IP addresses and provides an overview of how names are resolved to addresses.
Perhaps the easiest way to understand IP addresses is to look at the Internet as a global network. All networks that comprise the global network are just subnets. InterNIC provides the first level of subnetworking by dividing the global address space into classes that are assigned to organizations. The organizations are then responsible for subdividing their assigned address space to meet their network needs.
The IP address is a 32-bit number. To simplify the notation of addresses, divide this number into four octets and write the octets in a dotted-decimal format. Three types of IP addresses exist: network address, host address, and broadcast address. Because every host is part of a network, you divide the IP address into a network portion and a local host portion. When the local host portion is all zeros, it is a network address; all ones is a broadcast address. Anything else is a host address. However, the IP address itself contains no information about what constitutes the network portion versus the local host portion. The subnet mask provides this information. By convention, binary ones define the network portion, and zeros define the local host portion. Again, by convention, the ones must be contiguous to the left, and the remainder is zeros.
As mentioned previously, InterNIC splits the global address space into classes and then assigns the network address according to these divisions. Table 1.1 shows the breakdown of the address space.
|Table Class||Network Address||Subnet Mask||No. of Networks|
As mentioned before, the designations shown in Table 1.1 represent assigned network addresses. The network manager for an organization is then responsible for additional subnetting, according to the requirements of their individual networks.
Several special IP addresses also exist. For an Internet programmer, the most important special addresses are the local loopback address and the broadcast address. For the network administrator, the most important special addresses are those set aside for networks not connected to the Internet.
The local loopback address (127.0.0.1) enables a client application to address a server on the same machine without knowing the address of the host. This address is often called the local host address. In terms of the TCP/IP protocol stack, the flow of information goes to the Network layer, where the IP protocol routes it back up through the stack. This procedure hides the distinction between local and remote connections.
Broadcast addresses enable an application to send a datagram to more than one host. The special address 255.255.255.255 sends a “limited broadcast” to all hosts on this network. A “direct broadcast” uses the address form A.255.255.255, B.B.255.255, or C.C.C.255 to send messages to all hosts on a particular class A, B, or C network. Finally, a broadcast to a particular subnet is to the address with all local host bits set to one.
RFC 1918 specifies an Internet “best current practice” for address allocation on private internets (intranets). For a network not connected to the Internet, or a network where all Internet traffic passes through a proxy server, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) reserved three blocks of IP address space: 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255, and 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255. This block is equivalent to one class A address, 16 class B addresses, and 256 class C addresses.
In the early days of ARPAnet, a system resolved names to addresses using the hosts file. The Stanford Research International (SRI) maintained the hosts file, and each site periodically downloaded an updated copy of the file. As the number of sites connected to ARPAnet increased, this method proved too hard to maintain and placed an increasing burden on the network. In 1984 Paul Mockapetris, of University of Southern California’s Information Sciences Institute, released RFCs (882 and 883) that describe the domain name system. Today, DNS is the standard for resolving names to addresses. However, the hosts file still plays a role in name resolution during the booting of a system and as a means to provide LAN resolution when DNS is down.
In a nutshell, DNS is a distributed database whose structure looks like the UNIX file system. DNS is a client/server system in which the resolvers query name servers to find an address record for a domain name. The query process begins with the root name servers. If the root name server does not know the answer, it returns the address of a name server that knows more details about the domain name. The resolver then queries the new name server. This iterative process continues until a name server responds with the address for the domain name.
The resolver maintains the retrieved information in a cache until the designated time to live (TTL) for the record expires. This approach reduces the number of queries and, at the same time, responds to the dynamic nature of networks. By distributing the database across the Internet, the site responsible for the information maintains the information.
Most historical reviews of the Internet imply that networking began with ARPAnet. In a sense, digital transmission of data began when Samuel B. Morse publicly demonstrated the telegraph in 1844. In 1874, Thomas Edison invented the idea of multiplexing two signals in each direction over a single wire. With higher speeds and multiplexing, Edison’s teletype replaced Morse’s manual system; and a few teletype installations still exist today.
In 1837 both Sir Charles Wheatstone in Great Britain and Samuel B. Morse in the United States announced their telegraphic inventions.
The early telegraph systems were, in modern terms, point-to-point links. As the industry grew, switching centers acted as relay stations and paper tape was the medium that the human routers used to relay information from one link to another. Figure 1.1 illustrates a simple single-layer telegraphic network configuration. Figure 1.2 shows a more complex multilayered network.
The links of these networks were point-to-point asynchronous serial connections. For a paper tape network, the incoming information was punched on paper tape by high-speed paper tape punches and was then manually loaded on an outgoing paper tape reader.
Although this activity might seem like ancient history to younger readers, let us put this story into a more understandable framework. In early 1962, Paul Baran and his colleagues at the Rand Corporation were tackling the problem of how to build a computer network that would survive a nuclear war.
The year 1969 was a year of milestones. Not only did NASA place the first astronauts on the moon but also, and with much less fanfare, Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) contracted with Bolt, Baranek, and Newman (BBN) to develop a packet-switched network based on Paul Baran’s ideas. The initial project linked computers at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, and University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Nevada. On the other side of the continent from the ARPAnet action, Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie brought UNIX to life at Bell Labs (now Lucent Technologies) in Murray Hills, New Jersey.
Even though message switching was well known, the original ARPAnet provided only three services: remote login (telnet), file transfer, and remote printing. In 1972, when ARPAnet consisted of 37 sites, e-mail joined the ranks of ARPAnet services. In October 1972 ARPAnet was demonstrated to the public at the International Conference on Computer Communications in Washington, D.C. In the following year, TCP/IP was proposed as a standard for ARPAnet.
The amount of military-related traffic continued to increase on ARPAnet. In 1975 the Defense Communications Agency (DCA) changed its name to DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and took control of ARPAnet. Many non-government organizations wanted to connect to ARPAnet, but DARPA limited private sector connections to defense-related organizations. This policy led to the formation of other networks such as BBN’s commercial network Telenet.
The year 1975 marked the beginning of the personal computer industry’s rapid growth. In those days when you bought a microcomputer, you received bags of parts that you then assembled. Assembling a computer was a lot of work, for a simple 8KB memory card required over 1,000 solder connections. Only serious electronic hobbyists, such as those who attended the Home Brew computer club meetings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratories on Wednesday nights, built computers.
In 1976, four years after the initial public announcement that ARPAnet would use packet-switching technology, telephone companies from around the world through the auspices of CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony) announced the X.25 standard. Although both ARPAnet and X.25 used packet switching, there was a crucial difference in the implementations. As the precursor of TCP/IP, the ARPAnet protocol was based on the end-to-end principle; that is, only the ends are trusted and the carrier is considered unreliable.
On the other hand, the telephone companies preferred a more controllable protocol. They wanted to build packet-switched networks that used a trusted carrier, and they (the phone companies) wanted to control the input of network traffic. Therefore, CCITT based the X.25 protocol on the hop-to-hop principle in which each hop verified that it received the packet correctly. CCITT also reduced the packet size by creating virtual circuits.
In contrast to ARPAnet, in which every packet contained enough information to take its own path, with the X.25 protocol the first packet contains the path information and establishes a virtual circuit. After the initial packet, every other packet follows the same virtual circuit. Although this optimizes the flow of traffic over slow links, it means that the connection depends on the continued existence of the virtual circuit.
The end-to-end principle of TCP/IP and the hop-to-hop principle of X.25 represent opposing views of the data transfer process between the source and destination. TCP/IP assumes that the carrier is unreliable and that every packet takes a different route to the destination, and does not worry about the amount of traffic flowing through the various paths to the destination. On the other hand, X.25 corrects errors at every hop to the destination, creates a single virtual path for all packets, and regulates the amount of traffic a device sends to the X.25 network.
The year 1979 was another milestone year for the future of the Internet. Computer scientists from all over the world met to establish a research computer network called Usenet. Usenet was a dial-up network using UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX copy). It offered Usenet News and mail servers. The mail service required a user to enter the entire path to the destination machine using the UUCP bang addressing wherein the names of the different machines were separated by exclamation marks (bangs). Even though I sent mail on a regular basis, I always had problems getting the address right. Only a few UUCP networks are left today, but Usenet News continues as NetNews. Also in 1979, Onyx Systems released the first commercial version of UNIX on a microcomputer.
The most crucial event for TCP/IP occurred on January 1, 1983, when TCP/IP became the standard protocol for ARPAnet, which provided connections to 500 sites. On that day the Internet was born. Since the late 1970s, many government, research, and academic networks had been using TCP/IP; but with the final conversion of ARPAnet, the various TCP/IP networks had a protocol that facilitated internetworking. In the same year, the military part of ARPAnet split off to form MILNET. As the result of funding from DARPA, the University of California’s Berkeley Software Distribution released BSD 4.2 UNIX with a TCP/IP stack. In addition, Novell released NetWare based on the XNS protocol developed at Xerox Park, Proteon shipped a software base router using the PDP-11, and C++ was transformed from an idea to a viable language.
That was the year in which the idea of building local-area networks (LANs) was new and hot. With the introduction of LANs, the topology of networks changed from the representation shown in Figure 1.2, which ties legacy systems together, to that shown in Figure 1.3, which ties LANs together.
With the growth in number of organizations connecting to ARPAnet and the increasing number of LANs connected to ARPAnet, another problem surfaced. TCP/IP routes traffic according to the destination’s IP address.
The IP address is a 32-bit number divided into four octets for the sake of human readability. Whereas computers work with numbers, humans remember names better than numbers. When ARPAnet was small, systems used the host file (in UNIX the file is /etc/hosts) to resolve names to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. The Network Information Center (NIC) maintained the master file, and individual sites periodically downloaded the file. As the size of the ARPAnet grew, this arrangement became unmanageable in a fast-growing and dynamic network.
In 1984 the domain name system (DNS) replaced downloading the host file from NIC (the section “IP Addresses and Domain Names” discusses the relationship between the two in more detail). With the implementation of DNS, the management of mapping names to addresses moved out to the sites themselves.
For the next seven years, the Internet entered a growth phase. In 1987 the National Science Foundation created NFSNET to link super-computing centers via a high-speed backbone (56Kbps). Although NFSNET was strictly noncommercial, it enabled organizations to obtain an Internet connection without having to meet ARPAnet’s defense-oriented policy. By 1990 organizations connected to ARPAnet completed their move to NSFNET, and ARPAnet ceased to exist. NSFNET closed its doors five years later, and commercial providers took over the Internet world.
Until 1990 the primary Internet applications were e-mail, listserv, telnet, and FTP. In 1990, McGill University introduced Archie, an FTP search tool for the Internet. In 1991, the University of Minnesota released Gopher.
Gopher’s hierarchical menu structure helped users organize documents for presentation over the Internet. Gopher servers became so popular that by 1993 thousands of Gopher servers contained over a million documents. To find these documents, a person used the Gopher search tool Veronica (very easy rodent-oriented netwide index to computerized archives). These search tools are important, but they are not the ones that sparked the Internet explosion.
In 1992 Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, developed the protocols for the World Wide Web (WWW). Seeking a way to link scientific documents together, he created the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which is a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). In developing the WWW, he drew from the 1965 work of Ted Nelson, who coined the word hypertext. However, the event that really fueled the Internet explosion was the release of Mosaic by the National Center for Supercomputing (NCSA) in 1993.
From a standard for textual documents, HTML now includes images, sound, video, and interactive screens via the common gateway interface (CGI), Microsoft’s ActiveX (previously called control OLE), and Sun Microsystem’s Java. The changes occur so fast that the standards lag behind the market.
How large is the Internet today?
That is a good question. We could measure the size of the Internet by the number of network addresses granted by InterNIC, but these addresses can be “subnetted,” so the number of networks is much larger than InterNIC figures suggest. We could measure the size of the Internet by the number of domain names, yet some of these names are vanity names (a domain name assigned to an organization, but supported by servers that support multiple domain names) and other aliases. Vanity names and aliases result in a higher name count than the number of IP addresses, because multiple names point to the same IP address.
Starting in the fall of 1995, companies and organizations began to include their uniform resources locator (URL), along with their street address, telephone number, and fax number, in television ads, newspaper ads, and consumer newsletters. Therefore, a company’s presence on the Internet, as represent by its Web address (the URL), reached a new level of general acceptance. The Internet emerged from academia to become a household word.
The question arises as to where all this technology is going. Because my crystal ball is broken, please don’t hold me to what I say.