Make Key Design Decisions

Having a clear definition of your target customer will help guide many of your decisions when the specific work of designing your new business Web site begins.
Doesn’t everybody want basically the same things from a Web site? Well, yes and no.

Graphic Design
Graphic Design

Any visitor wants to know quickly what your site is about, what you have to offer that’s of value to them, a well-designed system to move them through its pages and freedom from sensory assault by unexpected, unwelcome noisy and flashy graphics which can slow page load times.
Remember always: Your Web site is there to serve your customers and their needs. If you’re turned off by endless popups, grating audio and graphics that look like they’ve been lifted from the Vegas strip, then you shouldn’t expect your Web site visitors to react any differently.
Your target customer may also have special needs that should be included in your site design.

The same features that are meant to serve them may also be just as welcome to a general audience. We’ll prepare you to move forward with briefings and resources in three parts:

  • General Design Principles
  • Getting Around On Your Web Site
  • ‘Seniors’ and Special Needs

General Design Principles
Don’t be a showoff. That’s another way of saying what we’ve stressed before, and will again: When it comes to Web design, as in so many other things, simple is better. Of course you want photos and other graphic images to tell your company’s story in the best way. And without some eye candy, any Web page is blah.
But use only what’s needed to enhance your central message and tell it quickly and clearly in an attractive setting.

Never make your customers work to get the information they need.
As you move ahead in building your site, stick to these basic design rules:

  • Keep it clean. Empty white space on your Web pages is itself a design element. Use enough to keep each page uncluttered and uncramped. Do the same if you decide to use a dark background.
  • In the dark. Never use dark text on dark backgrounds, or for that matter, light colored text on a white background. Black-on-white is a safe bet.
  • Gray blocks. Because you’re already keeping it simple, make your text as concise and straightforward as possible. Don’t waste words – they waste your customers’ time. And break up long paragraphs. What the eyes see in a split second – about all it takes for a Web user to split from your site – is a big, challenging block of gray text. Give it some air.
  • Choose colors carefully. You wouldn’t wear red plaid pants with an orange striped shirt (we hope!), and you should use the same design sense in picking the color palette for your Web site. There are even free tools to help.
  • Use successful models. The things you like or hate about other Web sites are probably the same for most other users. Take notes on what works and what you’d like to imitate. Better yet, save a screenshot in your design file. It’s easy:
    • With your cursor anywhere on the Web page you’ve chosen, hold down the Alt key and press the Print Screen key.
    • Nothing happened? Don’t worry, you just couldn’t see it.
    • Now open a blank document page in your word processor or Microsoft Paint, right click anywhere on it and choose Paste. An exact duplicate of the Web page you selected will appear!

Getting Around on Your Web Site
Easy navigation through your site is absolutely essential to a successful design. If the path you lay out for your customers to follow is long, twisted and forks off without reason, they’ll get lost – and you’ll lose the sale.
As part of planning in Step 1, we asked you to draw a simple diagram of all the pages on your future Web site, beginning with the home page, then connect them in the order you expect customers to follow.
Did it get messy? Too complicated? That’s your draft. Now you’ll refine it.

Try the same exercise by starting with the last page on your site diagram and working back to the home page. A lot of designers find that much easier.
Now, is every page linked directly to the home page like spokes on a wheel? That can work, but it requires your customers to go back to the home page every time they want find more information, more page links.

Do you have patience with that kind of back-and-forth?

7 Pages every Web site should have
Don’t look now, but your Web site might be missing a few pages—very important pages.
You’re not alone. Most small-business sites are a work in progress—constantly being revised, improved, and updated. So invariably, something is always missing. But some pages are so important that not having them could hurt your bottom line.
Here are seven pages every business Web site must have, and where they need to be:

  1.   Contact Us. Every small-business site should have a Contact Us page and it should offer visitors a complete list of ways they can contact you – from e-mail addresses to toll-free numbers to a physical address.
  2. Testimonials. Many companies skip the Testimonials page because they consider it too self-serving, While having a page like that may seem self-promotional, people will look for it. And when they don’t find it, they might begin to make assumptions.
  3. FAQ. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) are frequently forgotten, too. Why is an FAQ page so important? Mostly, they’ll ensure you won’t have to answer the same questions over and over. But it also is a convenience for site visitors.
  4.  A “gimme” page. Want readers to sign up for your newsletter or regular special offers? Add a section where users can be persuaded to give up some of their personal information (such as their names and e-mail addresses) in exchange for … well, something else. In many cases, this is an informative report, a keychain, a chance to win tickets to a ballgame, or a cash prize.
  5.  About Us. But just because you can do business with people you might never meet doesn’t mean they don’t want to know about who they’re doing business with. The most effective About Us pages are succinct and use no jargon.
  6. Confirmation. A decent confirmation page that acknowledges an order and thanks the visitor for his or her business is essential—and often lacking.
  7. Privacy Policy Page. Most businesses have this page lacking. This page is a trust builder and increases confidence in the product offered.

Every one of your Web pages should have an obvious link back to home, and many companies use their logo (with an embedded link) for that purpose. But it’s not enough.
Persistent navigation is much better. As long as one or more of the following elements appears exactly the same way in the same place on every one of your pages, your customers will be able to go wherever they want from any page on the site without first heading back home. Here’s how to do it:

  • Menus. Every Web user is familiar with menus and how they work. Often found on the left side of Web pages in vertical format, they may include clickable buttons linked to products or categories, blog pages or glossaries, size charts or shipping tables – anything that appears on the site’s other Web pages.
  • Tabs. was the first to use a horizontal row of “file folder tabs” at the top of its Web pages to give users an easier way to find popular content on the massive Web site. The fact that you now see tab-navigation everywhere on the Web is proof of its usability.
  • Site map. This can a simple text list or a more visually appealing diagram that shows where everything lives on your site. But if you have a large site, the diagram can become unwieldy. Just be sure your site map includes everything on your Web site with links to each page. You don’t need to put the map itself on every page; just link to it from your menu. This can also help you with your SEO efforts.

‘Seniors’ and Special Needs
As a businessperson, you should already be well aware that the Baby Boom Generation is here, it’s clear – get used to it.
This gigantic market segment not only is a consumer wonderland, but Boomers know what they want and how to throw their intimidating collective weight around to get it. When they were coming of age, they turned this country – and much of the world – on its head. Now they’re doing it again.
They’re older, of course. So they’re changing the definition of age. When one of the icons of Gen-Boom, feminist Gloria Steinem, was asked how she felt at age 50, she replied, “Exactly like I did when I turned 40,” or words to that effect.
The point is that 50, 60, 70 ain’t what it used to be. Unlike their parents, among other things, Boomers aren’t afraid of new technology and are flooding onto the Web. But they want it the way they want it – easy to read, especially with eyeglasses; mellow instead of jarring; and definitely free of (how would they put it?) crap.

at least a question, the user won’t be drawn to jump through the hoop.

As you design your Web site, also think about customers with impaired vision, hearing loss or other disabilities, and their special needs. The Web site Accessibility Initiative is a great source of tips and design techniques for doing this.

Some high points:

  • Audio and video. If you intend to use either to assist your customers – instructional videos, product tutorials, testimonials – be sure transcripts, captions and video descriptions are also available.
  • Clarity. Pay attention to contrast and sharpness, not only in your images, but throughout your Web site.
  • Color. Important for “décor,” but don’t use it to convey your message. A portion of your potential customers may be visually impaired and will miss the point.
  • Flicker. It amazes us that so many big, professional and otherwise good Web sites intentionally assault their users with flashing, flickering, strobe-speedgraphics as “attention-getters.” Not only is flicker extremely annoying, it can touch off seizures in some people with epilepsy.

5 Mistakes every Web site should avoid.
But let’s go beyond bad font choices, graphics, and animation. What are the biggest usability mistakes that aren’t as obvious? Here are five, with tips on how to avoid them.

  1.  Having a confusing or counterintuitive site structure. Nothing drives users away faster than a site that forces them to click around aimlessly until they stumble upon the right page. An expert user should be able to get where she wants to be in no more than three clicks.
  2. Making the menu too complicated. Menus are the rough equivalent of a Web site’s spine. You want to keep them clear, straight, and strong. Navigation is normally found running horizontally across the top of a page in a tab-like orientation or stacked vertically along the left side of the page. No funny coding. No funny scripts.
  3. Lapsing into industry jargon. An overabundance of marketing-speak and technical or industry jargon is a very common mistake. Your goal should be striking that balance between efficient search engine optimization and easy-to-read copy.
  4. Overpromising, or even under-promising, what you can deliver. A Web site becomes unusable, and thus irrelevant, when it tells users that it will do something and then does not do it. That will drive those visitors away. Permanently.
  5. Not closing the sale. If the site doesn’t call the user to some sort of action, whether it be phoning, faxing, e-mailing, or forming an order or

This article is brought to you by Carra Lucia LTD Software and Design


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